Correctly called Dampers (Velocity- sensitive Hydraulic damping devices). They
dampen the vertical motion induced by driving your car along a rough surface. If
your car only had springs, it would boat and wallow along the road until you got
physically sick and had to get out. Or at least until it fell apart.
Shock absorbers perform two functions. Firstly, they absorb any
larger-than-average bumps in the road so that the shock isn't transmitted to the
car chassis. Secondly, they keep the suspension at as full a travel as possible
for the given road conditions. Shock absorbers keep your wheels planted on the
road. Without them, your car would be a traveling deathtrap.
move faster the damper provides more resistance there
is to that movement. They work in conjunction with the springs. The spring
allows movement of the wheel to allow the energy in the road shock to be
transformed into kinetic energy of the un-sprung mass, whereupon it is
dissipated by the damper. The damper does this by forcing gas or oil through a
constriction valve (a small hole). Adjustable shock absorbers allow you to
change the size of this constriction, and thus control the rate of damping.